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"SFA" stands for the Smith Family Archives, assembled and transcribed over many years by Leanna Lois Claudia Smith, daughter of Alonzo; her great-nieces Mellie Morris Smith (daughter of Herbert Gustavus) and Gertrude Fairchild Smith (daughter of Maurice Leigh); and great-great-niece Mildred Aileen Nash (neé Mellie Agnes Smith: daughter of Francis See).

Great Britain and its American colonies did not adopt the Gregorian Calendar until 1752.  Years began on March 25th; the last day of the previous year was March 24th.  This may be reflected below in winter dates displayed with split years—e.g. "January 1, 1751/52"—even when the events take place in Germany.  (Other split years may indicate uncertainty as to an exact year.)

5    Upp from Ob

Ultimately Opp?

The Dictionary of American Family Names (courtesy of is mildly baffled by the surname Upp.  In English, it's "unexplained"; in Dutch, it's probably a variant of Opp (short for Opperman, i.e. hodcarrier); in North German, Oppermann is said to signify a sexton or churchwarden.

The Upps below were also known as Ob for much of the 18th Century; those that emigrated from Germany to America were occasionally called Opp.  The families with whom they intermarried exhibit wider spelling-ranges the further back we go—not least the Heintzes/Hoenses and Knorzers/Knortzers/Knoertzers, who have been traced back the furthest of all.

A directory of the principal forebears:
* Johann Peter Ob/Upp [Sr.]  (1754-1807): father of George Upp
* Maria Catherine Heintz/Hoens  (1754-1830): wife of Johann Peter; mother of George
* Philip Heintz [Sr.]  (1720-1777): father of Maria Catherine
* Anna Krabill  (1732-1770): wife of Philip, mother of Maria Catherine
* Peter Ob/Opp/Upp  (1723/25-1772): father of Johann Peter
* Maria Catharina Kno(e)rtzer  (1724/25-1770/72): wife of Peter, mother of Johann Peter
* (Johan or Philip?) Jacob Ob/Opp/Upp  (1690-1767): father of Peter
* (Anna or Maria?) Catharina Lauer(?)  (1700-1768): wife of Jacob, mother of Peter
* Johann Balthasar Knortzer [Sr.]  (1701-1769): father of Maria Catharina
* Maria Dorothea Meyer/Mayer  (1703-1738): wife of Johann Balthasar, mother of Maria Catharina

A Few Notes About York County, PA


Click on the thumbnail to the left to see an 1872 map of York County PA, and here to see to see a Wikipedia map.

York County was created out of Lancaster County in August 1749; its southern border was disputed by Pennsylvania and Maryland until the surveying of the Mason-Dixon Line in 1763-67.

* In 1732 Hans Yost Heydt (aka Jost Hite) led fifteen families from the future York PA south through the future Berkeley County VA/WV; they settled near present-day Winchester VA.  (As per ~history/berkeley.)
* York Town (later the "White Rose City" of York) was laid out in 1741, though not incorporated as a borough until 1787.
* York's Trinity Reformed Church was organized as the First Reformed Church in 1744; often referred to as "First Trinity Reformed" or "First Reformed Trinity."  Records kept in German were translated in 1937.  (As per ~trinity.)
* The Salem Reformed Church was founded near the town of Dover on land purchased by a Mr. Streher or Strayer; hence its byname of "Strayer's Reformed Church."  (~zinn says the church was founded in May 1757, but ~strayers and ~erhs indicate its baptismal records go back to 1745.)
* Much of the French and Indian War (1754-1763) was fought in western Pennsylvania.  The British and American colonists contended with the French, Shawnee, and Delaware Indians for control of the vast "Ohio Country" wilderness beyond the Appalachians.  War broke out after a force of Virginians ("many of them from the Eastern Panhandle," according to ~history/berkeley) tried to drive the French from Fort Duquesne; in the resulting battle, the Virginians led by Lt. Col. George Washington were obliged to surrender their own Fort Necessity.  In 1755 when General Edward Braddock was killed and his British army routed at the Monongahela, panic ensued among the unprotected colonists of Cumberland and York Counties; frontier warfare would continue until 1758 when the French abandoned Fort Duquesne, which the British rebuilt as Fort Pitt (later Pittsburgh PA).
* After the British occupied Philadelphia in September 1777, the Continental Congress met in York through June 1778; the Articles of Confederation were drafted and adopted there.  When Congress left York to return to Philadelphia, Josiah Bartlett of New Hampshire remarked: "By tomorrow noon Scarcely any English person will be left in this Town, as the original Setlers here are German & talk that Language."  (As per ~continental/york.)
* A 1783 tax list counted 27,640 inhabitants of York County—583 of whom were slaves or servants.  York Town's population of 1,840 lived in 293 houses, which were overwhelmed while Congress was there.  (As per ~continental/york.)
* Dover Township is west of the city of York; nearly all of its original settlers came from the Palatinate, either directly or via Holland and Switzerland.  (As per ~dovertownship.)
* Bott's Cemetery is located on Emig Mill Road in West Manchester Township, just south of Dover Township; visitors "need to make their way past the grazing cattle."  (As per ~botts.)
* Shiloh is an unincorporated community in West Manchester Township, on Carlisle Road between York and Weigelstown to the west.
* Also in in West Manchester Township is Louck Cemetery on Loucks Road, currently "the back side of the West Manchester Mall.  It is surrounded by pine trees and you can hardly see the cemetery."  (As per ~louck.)

Johann Peter and Maria Catherine

Leah Upp Wikel's father, George Upp aka George Ob, was the son of Johann Peter Upp aka Johann Peter Ob, Sr.  He was born in York PA on April 14, 1754 and baptized that month at Strayer's (Salem) Reformed Church, with grandparents Jacob and Catharina Ob as sponsors.  Johann Peter died in Dover Township on January 29, 1807 and was buried in Bott's Cemetery.

Johann Peter's wife is called
     * Maria Catherine Hoens   (by ~quick/upp and knorzer)
     * Maria Catharina Heintz  (by upp/pdf) and
     * "Maria Catherine Heintz (Hoens)"
  (by ~myers/upp).
All sources agree she was born January 2, 1754, and that she married Johann Peter Upp/Ob on May 6, 1777.  ~upp/pdf says the marriage took place in York's Trinity Church, and that Maria Catherine died in York on August 3, 1830.

Both ~upp/pdf and ~quick/upp give Johann Peter and Maria Catherine eight children, all born in York; but the two sites differ as to the order and dates of birth, plus various other particulars.  Both versions are presented below:

According to ~upp/pdf:
* Catherine Upp
:  born February 16, 1778; married Peter Weigel (1776-1859) on May 17, 1799 in York PA; died August 16, 1855; was buried at Shiloh Church
* Peter Upp:  born September 13, 1781; married Susan Winters 
* Eve Upp:  born July 7, 1784; married John Seower
* Jacob Upp:  born August 29, 1786
* Philip Upp:  born August 1, 1789
* George Upp:  born August 12, 1791; married Lydia Schramm and sired the brood listed in Chapter P-4
* Daniel Upp:  born February 4, 1795; died November 18, 1873; was buried at Shiloh Church
* Elizabeth Upp:  born April 18, 1797; married Jonas Toekle

According to ~quick/upp:
* Johann Peter Ob, Jr.:  born c.1782; married Susanna Winder on March 24, 1805; had children Margaretta Upp (born July 13, 1806), Johannes Upp (born October 13, 1808), and Leah Upp (born July 29, 1811—not to be confused with her younger cousin, daughter of Johann Peter's brother George)
* Eve Ob
:  born c.1784; married John Lauer (born c.1782); had daughter Catherine Lauer (born c.1804)
* John Jacob Ob:  born June 28, 1786; married Barbara Lauer (born November 7, 1787) on August 11, 1810; John Jacob died on March 2, 1852; Barbara followed on October 22, 1859
* Philip Ob:  born February 1, 1789; married Christina Lauer (born c.1791) on April 19, 1812; had children Jonas Upp (born/died 1812) and Catherine Upp (born c.1814)
* George Ob
:  born August 12, 1791; married Lydia Schramm (born c.1793) on October 9, 1815; had children Leah, Samuel and Abram (the only ones listed)
* Daniel Ob:  born February 3, 1795; married Catherine Becker (born September 26, 1801) on August 5, 1819; had son Henry Upp (born April 30, 1825 and died January 6, 1847).  Catherine died September 20, 1866 and Daniel on November 19, 1873
* Elizabeth Ob
:  born April 8, 1797
* Catharina Ob:  born May 12, 1799

Catherine Upp and Peter Weigel
identifies only one child—Catherine Upp—agreeing with ~upp/pdf as to her vital stats, and adding that she and Peter Weigel had ten children between 1805 and 1818.  ~weigle states that "John Peter Weigle" (born February 13, 1775) married "Maria Catharine Obb" on May 12, 1799 at First Reformed Trinity in York; they can be traced through West Manchester Township censuses to 1850, when Peter was 74 and Catharine 72.   The Weigel/Weigle family was very active at Shiloh's Union Church—as was a Daniel Upp, most likely Catherine's younger brother.

John Jacob Upp and Barbara Lauer
informs us that "Upp John Jacob" and spouse "Upp Barbara" were buried in Louck Cemetery.  John Jacob died March 2, 1852 aged "65y 6m 4d," which concurs with ~upp/pdf's August 29, 1786 birthdate.  Barbara's gravestone birthdate of November 7, 1787 concurs with ~quick/upp's; ditto her deathdate of October 22, 1859.
     However: according to the SFA, Jacob Upp—referred to as "Uncle Jacob" by Leah Upp Wikel—left York County "about 1825 or 1830"; settled at Spring Mill near Mansfield, Ohio; and had two sons and two daughters.  (Mansfield is the seat of Richland County in north central Ohio.)  Jacob's grandson A.F. Upp wrote an undated letter to his cousin Ellen Wikel Smith from Cleveland, where he was pastor of the Simpson Methodist Episcopal Church.  A.F.'s parents had lived in Plymouth OH; three of his sisters still lived there, while two others were in Westerville OH and Nevada MO; a brother lived in Wauseon OH.

Philip Upp and Christina Lauer
confirms the marriage of "Philip Op" aka Upp to Christina Lauer (aka Christena and Christiana) on April 19, 1812 at York's First Trinity Reformed Church.  In 1835 Philip relocated to Richmond Township, Huron County, Ohio (just north of Richland County, close to Lake Erie).  He cleared land and built a cabin, and in early 1836 moved his family into it.  He and Christina had four children: Jacob Upp, Philip Upp Jr., Elizabeth Upp, and Hannah Upp.  The first three all married Croningers: Elizabeth to Jonathon Croninger in 1843; Jacob to Susan Croninger in 1844; Philip Jr. to Hannah Croninger in 1846.  Philip Sr. and Christina were buried (as "Upps") in New Haven Cemetery, New Haven Township, Huron County—Philip having died on March 8, 1845 and Christina on May 5, 1855.

Elizabeth Upp and Jonas Fackler
reports that Elizabeth Upp, born April 8, 1797 in York PA, married Jonas Fackler (born May 21, 1799).  They had six children in York:
          * Daniel Fackler:  born September 8, 1825
          * Mary Fackler:  born January 21, 1827
          * Abraham Fackler:  born October 28, 1828
          * Catherine Fackler:  born August 8, 1830
          * George Fackler:  born August 4, 1832
          * Elizabeth Fackler:  born August 13, 1834
—before moving to Huron County, Ohio via prairie schooner in 1837.  Two months after they arrived, Samuel Newton Fackler was born on June 27, 1837 in Richmond Township; an eighth child, Philip Fackler, arrived on March 15, 1840.  ~ohhuron/fackler adds that Jonas Fackler stayed at Philip Upp's cabin in Richmond Township for nine days in 1837, before he and his brother Jacob Fackler built a cabin of their own.  Elizabeth died November 21, 1866 ("aged 69y 7m 13d") and Jonas followed on November 17, 1875.  Their grave in Richmond Township was marked by tall marble obelisk until 1987, when it got toppled and broken in a storm.

A Few Notes About
Southwestern Germany

The Ob/Upp, Heintz/Hoens, and Kno(e)r(t)zer families were all rooted in southwest Germany.  Like so many of the Pennsylvania Dutch, they came from the Lower or Rhenish Palatinate between Luxembourg and the Rhine River, or from Hesse to the northeast or Baden to the southeast.  (Click here to see a Wikipedia map of their present-day states—Rheinland-Pfalz, Hessen, and Baden-Württemberg.)

* Kusel is a municipality and district in the North Palatian Hills of southern Rhineland-Palatinate, close to the Saarland and not far east of Luxembourg.
* Thallichtenberg, about three miles to the west, is also in Kusel district (though associated in entries below with Birkenfeld, the neighboring district to the north).
* Godelhausen, the earliest-known home of the House of Heintz/Hoens, is four miles southeast of Kusel.
* Treschklingen, Bad Rappenau, and Heilbronn are all in the district of Heilbronn in northern Baden-Württemberg (currently Germany's southwesternmost state).  Treschklingen is about 100 miles east of Kusel; Bad Rappenau is three miles east of Treschklingen; and Heilbronn about fourteen miles southeast of Bad Rappenau—or, if you prefer, 34 miles north of Stuttgart.
* In the same district is Hohenstadt, part of the historic spa town of Bad Wimpfen, about ten miles north of Heilbronn.
* Twenty or so miles further north is Sennfeld, just southwest of Adelsheim in the Neckar-Odenwald district of Baden-Württemberg.  It should not be confused with the Sennfeld in the Bavarian district of Schweinfurt, which is over 70 miles to the northeast.
* The village of Furfeld (according to ~wilkinson-topley) is about three miles south of Treschklingen—thus not to be confused with the Fürfeld in the Rhineland-Palatinate district of Bad Kreuznach, which is 36 miles northeast of Kusel.

The House of Heintz/Hoens

George Upp's mother, Maria Catherine Heintz/Hoens, is supplied with several generations of ancestry by ~myers/upp (augmented below by other sources).

Her father Philip Heintz [Sr.] was born November 25, 1720 in Kusel.  He in turn was the son of Johann Philippus Hoehns and Susanna Maria [surname?], who brought their family to America aboard the Glasgow (out of Amsterdam, Captain Walter Sterling, 349 passengers) and arrived in Philadelphia on September 9, 1738.  The ship's manifest, viewable at ~glasgow, includes the following household:
     * Johan Philip Heintz, age 46
     * Susanna Maria [no age given]
     * Johann Marx, age 18
     * Philipps Henrich [sic], age 17
     * Maria Catharina, age 15
     * Juliana Elisabetha, age 13
     * Maria Elisabetha, 11
     * Johann Nickel, age 4
     * Maria Barbra [sic], age 1
The family was headed for "York & Frederick Co." (although neither York County nor York Town had been founded in 1738) and a variant surname of "Hanes" is noted.

Circa 1753, Philip Heintz married Anna Krabill (daughter of Johannes Graybill) who was born September 7, 1732 in Conestoga Township, Lancaster County PA.  They had nine children:
     * Maria Catherine Heintz (Hoens):  born January 2, 1754
     * Susanna Maria Heintz:  born November 23, 1755
     * Johan Jacob Heintz:  born July 14, 1757
     * Philip Heintz [Jr.]:  born July 5, 1759; presumably died before the second Philip Jr. was born
     * Barbara Heintz:  born June 24, 1760
     * Philip Heintz [Jr.]:  born February 24, 1763
     * Elizabeth Heintz:  born April 11, 1765
     * Christina Heintz:  born February 6, 1768
     * Eva Heintz:  born October 28, 1779 [a typo for 1769?]
Their mother Anna died November 2, 1770 in York County, and Philip Heintz married Christina Jost on July 23, 1771.  Philip died December 5, 1777 in York County; Christina followed in 1779.

Philip's father, Johann Philippus Hoehns, had been born in Kusel on March 19, 1691/92; he worked as a potter.  According to both ~myers/upp and ~spidle, Johann Philippus and wife Susanna Maria (surname? born c.1694) had nine German-born children—two more than appear on the Glasgow's manifest:

     * Johan Marx Heintz:  born September 17, 1719
     * Philip Heintz:  born November 25, 1720
     * Maria Catharina Heintz:  born August 25, 1722
     * Juliana Elisabetha Heintz:  born December 6, 1724
     * Maria Elisabetha Heintz aka Maria Elizabeth Heintz aka Elizabeth Haens:  born February 18, 1725/26; married in 1744, to a husband (born 1721 in Wittgenborn, Hesse) who is called Lorenz Protzman by ~spidle, and Lorentz Brotzman by ~myers/upp; they had two sons.  Maria Elisabetha died May 2, 1806 in Graceham, Frederick County, Maryland
     * Johan Bernhard Heintz:  born July 20, 1728
     * Juliana Susanna Heintz:  born July 26, 1730
     * Johan Nickel Heintz:  born July 20, 1733; married Sophia [surname?] and had two sons
     * Maria Barbara Heintz:  born November 24, 1736

Earlier generations of Heintzes:

* Johann Philippus Hoehns was the son of Johannes Heintz (born 1650 in Kusel; died there September 7, 1724) and Maria Elisabeth Petter (born c.1652 in Thallichtenberg, "Birkenfeld," Rhineland-Palatinate; the daughter of Simon Petter).

* Johannes Heintz was the son of Nichel Heintz (born 1619 in Kusel) and Anna Margaretha [surname?] (born c.1621).

* Nichel Heintz was the son of Johannes Heintz (born c.1593 in Godelhausen, Kusel) and Catherine Gahl (born c.1593, the daughter of Hans Gahl; married May 1618 in Kusel).

And with Hans Gahl (the six-times-great-grandfather of Leah Upp Wikel) we reach the outmost limits of this particular line of ascent.

Just Plain Peter and Maria Catharina

Let us return to the Upps and climb a different branch of The Tree.  Johann Peter Ob/Upp's father is variously named
     * Peter Pence Ob  (by ~quick/upp)
     * Peter Pence Upp  (by ~knorzer)
     * just plain Peter Upp  (by ~myers/upp)
     * Peter Opp  (by ~knrtzer), and
     * Johann Peter Upp  (by ~upp/pdf).
Genealogist James Upp ( observes that Peter Ob/Opp/Upp has been confused
for reasons detailed belowwith his brother-in-law, Peter Bentz aka Peter Pence (1732-1812) who married Peter Upp's sister Elizabeth.

Regarding just plain Peter Upp, ~quickupp and ~knorzer say he was born "Abt. 1723 in Germany"; ~myers/upp says "Abt. 1724."  ~upp/pdf declares that "Johann Peter" was born September 2, 1725 in Gelsendorf, Stryj, Galizien; but Gelsendorf was not founded until 1784.  (Austria obtained eastern Galicia—Ostgalizien—when Poland was first partitioned in 1772.  Emperor Joseph II encouraged Ostgalizien's colonization by German Protestants, especially from the Palatinate; they founded Gelsendorf, "a kind of model village," near the town of Stryj.  As per ~gelsendorf.)

Sources agree that Peter Ob/Opp/Upp died December 1, 1772 in Dover Township, York PA.  ~knorzer notes that his will (in the name of "Peter Opp") was dated the previous November 17th, and that Jacob Opp (his son?) was one of the executors.

Just Plain Peter's wife, Maria Catharina Knor(t)zer, is variously named
     * Maria Catharina Knirtzer  (by ~quick/upp);
     * Maria Catharina Knortzer  (by ~knorzer);
     * Maria Catharina Knrtzer  (by ~knrtzer);
     * Maria Catharina Knoertzer  (by ~myers/upp); and
     * Maria Catharina Knoertzner  (by upp/pdf).
She was born February 9, 1724/25 in Treschklingen; married Peter in 1746 (upp/pdf says at Strayer's [Salem] Reformed Church in Dover Township); and died February 12, 1770 in York (~myers/upp says 1772).

For Peter and Maria Catharina we have FIVE lists of children, varying more divergently than the generations above.  Each version is presented below:

According to ~upp/pdf:
* Margareta Upp
:  born ?; married Johan Martin Wiegel aka John Martin Weigel (uncle of the Peter Weigel who married Catherine Upp; as per ~weigle)
* Catherine Upp:  born 1746
* Sophia Upp:  born October 9, 1748; married Andrew Blekhars
* Doretha Upp:  born January 28, 1749
* Johann Peter Upp:  born April 14, 1754 in York PA
* Eva Barbara Upp:  born July 10, 1757 in York PA; died November 24, 1835 in York PA
* Magdalena Upp:  born February 25, 1759
* Maria Catherine Upp:  born 1766

According to ~quick/upp:
* Sophia Ob:  born October 9, 1748; married Andrew Blechard (born c.1746)
* Dorothea Ob
:  born circa January 1749; baptized that month at Strayer's; married Adam Metzger (born c.1748)
* Maria Margaretha Ob:  born circa August 1751; baptized that month at Strayer's; married Martin Wenkel (born c.1749)
* Maria Elizabeth Ob:  born 1753
* Johann Peter Ob, Sr.
:  born April 14, 1754
* Johann Jacob Ob:  born circa December 1755; baptized that month at Strayer's; married Margaret Heidig (born June 4, 1758); she died February 25, 1827, and Johann Jacob followed on October 20, 1835
* Eva Barbara Ob
:  born circa July 1757; baptized that month at Strayer's, with grandfather "Baltzer" and stepgrandmother Catharina Knirtzer as sponsors
* Magdalena Ob:  born 1759
* Eva Margretha Ob:  born circa December 1760; baptized that month at Strayer's
* Andreas Ob (aka Andrew Ob):  born circa June 1762; baptized that month at Strayer's
* Maria Catherina Ob:  born 1764; married Conrad Becker Jr. (born September 9, 1777, son of Conrad Becker Sr. and Catharina Lambert)

According to ~knorzer:
* Sophia Upp:  born 1748; married Andrew Blechhard
* Dorthea Upp
aka Dorothea Upp:  born 1750; married Adam Metzger
* Maria Margareth Upp aka Margaret Upp:  born 1751; married Martin Wenkel
* Maria Elizabeth Upp:  born 1753
* Johann Peter Upp
:  born April 14, 1754
* Johann Jacob Upp:  born 1755
* Eva Barbara Upp
:  born 1757
* Magdalena Upp:  born 1759
* Eva Margretha Upp:  born 1760
* Andrew Upp:  born ?
* Catherina Upp:  born ?; married Conrad Becker
* Maria Catherina Upp
:  born ?
* Child Upp
:  born ?
(The latter four are confusingly placed—and numbered—at the top of ~knorzer's list.)

According to ~myers/upp:
* Catharina Upp:  born c.1746
* Sophia Upp:  born October 9, 1748
* Dorothea Upp:  born c.1750
* Maria Margaretha Upp:  born 1751
* Elisabeth Upp:  born c.1752
* Johann Peter Upp:  born 1754
* Johan Jacob Upp [sic]:  born 1755
* Eva Barbara Upp:  born 1757
* Eva Margaretha Upp:  born 1760
* Andreas Upp:  born 1762
* Magdalena Upp:  born c.1764
* Maria Upp:  born c.1766

According to ~knrtzer:
* Catharine (Opp)
* Sophia (Opp)
* Dorothea (Opp)
* Maria Margretha (Opp)
* Maria Elisabeth (Opp)
* Johann Peter (Opp)
* Joh. Jacob (Opp) [sic]
* Eva Barbara (Opp)
* Magdalena (Opp)
* Eva Margareth (Opp)
* Andreas (Opp)
* Maria Catharina (Opp)

~genforum/upp28, referring to Maria Catharina's death record, says she and Peter had thirteen children: all but one of whom survived her.

(Johann or Philip?) Jacob and (Anna or Maria?) Catharina

We lose our grip on the Ob/Opp/Upp branch of The Tree at the turn of the 18th Century.  There is no consensus regarding the first names of its topmost members.

According to ~quick/upp, Peter Ob/Opp/Upp's parents were Johann Jacob Ob, Sr. (born 1690 in Germany, unspecified as to where) and Anna Catharina Lauer (born 1700 in Germany, ditto); they emigrated to America on September 18, 1733.  Jacob's will is dated May 19, 1758; he died in Dover Township on March 30, 1767; Anna Catharina followed in 1768.  We might surmise that the Lauers who married three of their great-grandchildren were descended from the same family as Anna Catharina; but no evidence for this has been found.

~quick/upp gives Johann Jacob Sr. and Anna Catharina nine children:

* Elizabeth Ob:  born c.1721 in Germany; married Peter Bentz (born c.1721) around 1758; died in 1793
* Peter Pence Ob:  born c.1723 in Germany
* Johann Jacob Ob, Jr.:  born c.1725 in Germany; married Maria Catharina (surname? born c.1728); died without issue January 1794 in York PA
* Anna Marecretha Ob:  born 1726 in Germany; married Georg Christoph Knirtzer (aka Knertzer/Krotzer/Crotzer: the older brother of Just Plain Peter's wife) in 1745 at Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church in York PA; had five children (listed in their father's section below); died in 1757 (but see below) and was buried in Statlers Cemetery near Reels Corner, Shade Township, Somerset County PA
* Nicholas Ob, Sr.:  born c.1727; married Elizabeth (surname? born c.1730) around 1748; had four children; died 1754 in York County
* Catharina Ob:  born c.1731; married twice, to Mr. Wiemer (born c.1728) and Mr. Hauk (born c.1729)
* Anna Sophia Ob:  born c.1733 in York PA—evidently the first American-born child; married Johannes Gaslow (born c.1731) and had a son, Michael Gaslow (born May [day?] 1798; baptized at Strayer's, with Jacob and Anna Catharina Ob as sponsors)
* Marie Margareth Ob:  born July 9, 1735 in Shade Township, Somerset County PA; married Jacob Matthias Lambert II (1723-1788); had eleven children; died
February 6, 1815 in Shade Township and buried in Statler[s] Cemetery
* Louisa Ob:  born c.1737

~myers/upp, on the other hand, identifies Peter's parents as Philip Jacob Opp and "Maria Catharina ???," and lists only six children:

* Johan Nicholas Upp:  born c.1719
* Catharina Upp:  born c.1721
* Peter Upp:  born c.1724
* Anna Macreta Upp:  born c.1726
* Louisa Upp:  born c.1728
* Philip Jacob Upp:  born c.1735

~genforum/upp31 says Peter's parents were "Philip Jacob Ob (Opp, Upp)" and "Maria Catherina," and lists nine children:

* Johan Nicholas:  born c.1719; his probate inventory was filed in Manchester Township in 1754
* Catharina:  born c.1721; married a Mr. Hauk
* Peter:  no birthyear given
* Anna Marcreta:  no birthyear given; married Georg Christoph Knortzer
* Louisa:  born c.1728; married a Mr. Wiemer
* Maria Margaretha
:  born July 9, 1735; married Jacob Lambert, son of Matthias Lambert and Anna Rosina Rees; had ten children; was not mentioned in father's will, but did appear in her brother Jacob Jr.'s; died February 6, 1815 in Shade Township, Somerset County PA
* Philip Jacob Jr.:  born c.1735, married Agnes (surname?) and had a daughter Agnes, both of whom apparently predeceased him; wrote his will in Dover Township on December 19, 1793; it was probated January 14, 1794.  Legatees included heirs to his deceased siblings "Peter Opp," "Nicholas Opp," "Margaret Knertzer," and "Elizabeth Pentz," plus living siblings "Sovia Krim," "Mary Margaret Lambert," and "Catharina or hankin Oppen" [sic]
* Catherina Elisabeth:  born c.1737; married Peter Bentz aka Peter Pentz
* Sophia
:  no birthyear given; married a Mr. Krim

~genforum/upp31 takes much of its information from a York County Historical Society genealogical report, which identifies Peter's father as Philip Jacob Ob of Germany ("no record of his emigration has been found").  As "Jacob Ob, Dover Township, Yeoman," his will was written on May 19, 1758 and probated March 30, 1767, with sons Peter and Jacob Upp as its executors.  Bequests were left to wife Catharina; to children Jacob, Peter, Catharina, Louisa, and Sophia; to representatives of deceased son Nicholas; and to grandchildren Nicholas, Andreas, "Balser," Anna Margreta, and Catharina (the five children of son-in-law "Christopher Knertzer").  The will's principal bequest is a 300-acre "dwelling plantation" in Dover Township, left to Jacob's "children" Peter Bentz and wife Elizabeth—a wording which explains the confusion of Jacob's son Peter Ob/Opp/Upp with Jacob's son-in-law Peter Bentz/Pentz/Pence.

~genforum/upp08 gives additional details.  Jacob's will was probated by "Peter Bentz of Dover Twp—Tavern Keeper, Philip Bentz of York—Town Yeoman, and Michael Hahn of York—Blacksmith."  Jacob made his mark (a circle) upon the will; next to that mark was written "Jacob ob" [sic].  Sons Jacob and Peter renounced the executorship and administration of their father's estate, though "saving nevertheless all our right to the legacies to us by the said will."

The House of Knor(t)zer

Knorzer, we are told, stems from the word knorr ("knot")—implying shortness and thickness of body.  Let ~knorzer and ~knrtzer (plus assorted other sources) be our guides to The House of the Knotty Name:

Peter Ob/Opp/Upp's wife, Maria Catharina Knortzer, was the daughter of Johann Balthasar Knortzer [Sr.].  He was born November 2, 1701 in Furfeld, Bad Rappenau, Heilbronn, Baden (as per ~knrtzer, ~quick/upp, and ~xrysta; ~knorzer says "Sennfeld, Oldenwald [sic], Germany [Prussia].")  His name has the usual changes rung upon it:
     * Johann Balthasar Knortzer, Sr.  (by ~knorzer);
     * Johann Balthasar Knirtzer, Sr.  (by ~quick/upp);
     * Johann Balthasar Knrtzer  (by ~knrtzer);
     * Johann Baltzer Knoertzer  (by ~myers/upp); and
     * Johann Balthaser Knörtzer  (with other variations, by ~xrysta).

Balthasar's first wife was Maria Dorothea Meyer aka Mayer, born August 13, 1703 in Hohenstadt, Bad Wimpfen; the daughter of Hans Georg Meyer (aka Hanns Mayer) and Maria Dorothea Zwick.  She and Balthasar were married on May 25, 1722 in Treschklingen and had eight children there:

* Georg Christoph Knortzer:  born August 31, 1723; died by August 24, 1793 in Rutherford County NC; of whom more below
* Maria Catharina Knortzer:  born February 9, 1724/25; of whom more above
* Catharina Dorothea Knortzer:  born October 23, 1727; married Andreas Miller (aka Andrew Miller and Andreas Muller) on April 8, 1753; died after 1778 in York PA
* Maria Christina Knortzer:  born August 22, 1728 (~xrysta says April 27th); died July 30, 1729 in Treschklingen
* Johann Balthasar Knortzer [Jr.]:  born July 14, 1730; married Maria Barbara Rudisil aka Barbara Rudisille on September 22, 1754 in York PA; had seven children; died 1803 in Morgantown, [West] Virginia (~knorzer says 1791 in Harrisburg PA)
* Eva Barbara Knortzer:  born January 10, 1732/33; married Johann Georg Schubler aka Johann Georg Schussler on August 6, 1767 in Treschklingen.  (~knrtzer says she emigrated with her parents to Pennsylvania; but see below)
* Johann Georg Knortzer:  born March 29, 1735; died between 1753 and 1767 in Pennsylvania (say ~knorzer and ~knrtzer; but see below)
* Christina Knortzer:  born September 14, 1736

(~knrtzer and ~quick/upp agree with ~knorzer and ~xrysta on the above list and order of births; but give the children the surnames Knrtzer and Knirtzer respectively.)

On April 17, 1738 an inventory was made in Treschklingen of Balthasar Knortzer's property (listed by ~knrtzer and ~xrysta: including "cattle and other animals, and odds and ends") in preparation for selling everything that could not be taken to America.  "Because of religious persecution and the upheaval of the times they sold all of their goods and property and left Germany in 1738," says ~migrations/balthasar—which adds that Balthasar and Maria Dorothea were accompanied by only the four oldest of their seven surviving children.  ~wilkinson-topley agrees, remarking that because children under eight seldom survived transatlantic crossings, the three youngest were left in Germany.  (Click here to reread Chapter 7's descriptions of such trips; and see ~kauffman for excerpts from a diary kept by a 1737 passenger, noting the deaths en route of over twenty children—three of them his own.)

The Knortzers embarked upon an English ship, the Charming Nancy—out of Rotterdam via Cowes, captained by Charles Stedman—and it was Maria Dorothea, wife and mother, who died during the voyage and had to be buried at sea.  The survivors arrived in Philadelphia on November 8, 1738.  (As per ~wilkinson-topley; ~knrtzer says November 9th.  ~xrysta says the 9th was when the passengers took their oaths at the Philadelphia courthouse; ~olive/charming shows the 9th as the date Captain Stedman swore to the passenger manifest.)

Balthasar married again in 1739, to the widow Maria Anna Catherina Wolff Grass (aka Anna Maria Catharina Wolff; Maria Katharina Wolff; Anna Catherine Wolff; and Maria Anna Catherina [Wolf] Grass).  She was born 1703 in Germany, and had a son Andreas Grass by her first marriage.  Joining Balthasar and his children, they settled across the Susquehanna in what would become York County.  There Balthasar became a prominent landowner, buying and selling over 1,200 acres plus three lots in York Town (as per ~wilkinson-topley).  In 1741 he was one of twenty-four founders of Christ Lutheran Church at 29 South George Street in York (as per ~knrtzer; ~migrations/balthasar says it was "Strayers Lutheran Church").  There two of his children would be married and several grandchildren christened.  Balthasar became a naturalized citizen on September 25, 1751; around 1762 he and his wife settled in a house built on lot No. 84, east side of Beaver Street, in York Town (as per ~xrysta).

Johann Balthasar Knortzer died before September 18, 1769 (when his will was probated).  ~knorzer says he died in "Newbury Township"—i.e. Newberry Township, which is north of Conewago Township, which is northeast of Dover Township.  The will is given in full by ~knorzer, and in excerpts below; it makes for impressive 18th Century verbiage.  Maria Anna Catharina Wolff Grass Knortzer died in York circa 1774.

Earlier generations of Knor(t)zers:

* Johann Balthasar was the son of Killian Knorzer, born April 15, 1677 in Treschklingen (according to ~knrtzer; ~knorzer says Sennfeld, Odenwald, Baden).  The name of Killian's first wife is not remembered, but they were married January 25, 1700/01 and had (besides Balthasar) a daughter Anna Rosina Knorzer who married Johann Jacob Mayer on November 28, 1730 in "Furfeld, Heilbronn, Rappenau."  Killian Knorzer died in Treschklingen on November 28, 1734; his second wife Anna Barbara (surname?) followed on February 21, 1751/52.

* Killian Knorzer was the son of Andreas Knorzer [Sr.], born August 19, 1627 in Sennfeld, Odenwald, Baden; he died there on March 7, 1689/90.  Andreas married Anna Katharina Schaffer (born 1646) in Sennfeld on August 8, 1672.  They had five children:
     * Stephen Knorzer
:  born October 3, 1673; died May 19, 1760
     * Anna Rosina Knorzer:  born December 2, 1674
     * Killian Knorzer:  born April 15, 1677
     * Andreas Knorzer [Jr.]:  born December 17, 1678; died September 5, 1679, and was succeeded by:
     * Andreas Knorzer [Jr.]:  born March 15, 1684/85; married Susanna Rembach (born 1690) in 1710 in Buttelbronn—no indication whether the Buttelbronn in Baden-Wurttemberg, or the one in Bavaria; had a son, Hans Andreas Knorzer (1713-1799); died June 16, 1759

Georg Christoph & Company

The present author did not intend to give Georg Christoph Knortzer a section of his own, but it's the clearest-cut method of presenting his multiple wives and children.

Johann Balthasar and Maria Dorothea's eldest child was born in Treschklingen on August 31, 1723, and accompanied the family to Pennsylvania in 1738.  He married three times, firstly to a sister of Peter Ob/Opp/Upp:
     * ~quick/upp
calls her Anna Marecretha Ob (aka Opp and Upp): born 1726, married 1745, had five children, died 1757
    * ~knorzer and ~xrysta call her Anna Marcretha Upp (aka Ob and Opp):  born 1727, married before 1747, had five children, died before 1758
    * ~knrtzer calls her Anna Marcreta Ob/Upp:  born 1730, married 1746, "had descendants"; divorced August 18, 1764

This last is a confusion with Georg Christoph's second wife, Margaret Elizabeth aka Margareta Elizabetha aka Margarita Elizabetha (surname?).  ~xrysta states that she was the one granted a deed of divorce, on August 20, 1764.  Teresa Price, a descendant of George Christoph's eldest son Johannes Nicolaus, has supplied the present author with a copy of the deed itself, taken from the York County, Pennsylvania Deed Book "B" 1763-1764:

Margareta Elizabetha Knertzer the wife of Christopher Knertzer late of Newbury Township in the County of York Yeoman.  Whereas divers debates Strifes Contentions and Controverseys have arisen and subsisted between my said husband Christopher Knertzer and me so that we can no longer Dwell together as Husband and Wife ought to do and it has therefore become Necessary for us to part and live Separate to the End that we may Have that Peace Separate which we cannot have Together Now know ye that I the said Margareta Elizabetha Knertzer as well in consideration of the Premisses as of the sum of Slxty Pounds Lawful Money of Pennsylvania to me in hand paid by the Aforesaid Christopher Knertzer before the Sealing and Delivery of these Presents the receipt Whereof I do hereby acknowledge have remised released and forever quit Claim and by these Presents do remise Release and forever Quit Claim unto the Aforesaid Christopher Knertzer all the Right which I have or Ought or Might or Could have of in & to the Person Bed & Board of the said Christopher Knertzer and also all the Title Interest Right of Dower and right of Maintenance which I have or might have by Virtue of our Intermarriage of in and to all the Estate both Real and Personally of him the said Christopher Knertzer which he now hath or which he held at the time of our Intermarriage or at any time since or which he may at any time hereafter Purchase from any Persons or Person Whatsoever...

(It continues in similar vein for another thirty lines.)

A month earlier, Georg Christoph had purchased acreage on Grant Creek in Rowan County, North Carolina.  Here he took his five children by Anna Marcretha, each of whom is documented in detail by ~knorzer:
Johannes Nicholaus Knortzer aka Johannes Nicolaus Knoertzer aka John Nicholas Knoerzer aka Nicholas Knatzer aka Nicholas Conetzer  (1746/47-c.1830)
     * Andreas
"Andrew" Knortzer  (1748-c.1810)
Johann Balthazar "John Balser" Knortzer  (1750-c.1830)
Anna Marcretha "Margaret" Knortzer Wortman  (1751/52-c.1830)
Marie Catherina Knortzer  (1754-c.1790)
largely agrees with this list, varying only in the middle-name spellings Nicholas, Balthasar, and Catharina; adding that George Christoph married his second wife c.1758.

Georg Christoph's third wife was the widow Eve Smith Adams (born 1731), whom he married in Rowan County c.1765.  They had at least three children:
     * Margaret Knortzer Mings  (1765-1853)
     * Jacob Kanatzar aka Kenetzor, Kneetzor, Knertzan, etc. etc.  (c.1767-c.1851)
     * Christopher Kanatzar Sr. aka Kanatser, Conatser, Conester, Conesto, Kenaza, Cannoctson, Connotes, etc. etc.  (1775-c.1840)
surnames all of Eve's children Conatser; and ~knrtzer adds a fourth son, David Crotzer (1775-1835).

Georg Christoph Knortzer—by now aka George Christopher—died before August 24, 1793 in Rutherford County NC.

Balthasar's Last Testament

Courtesy of ~knorzer:

I Baltzar Knertzer of the Town of York in the County of York in the Province of Pennsylvania, Yeoman, being well in Body, and of Perfect Mind and Memory, Thanks be to God for the same, but farr advanced in years and calling to Mind the uncertainty of this transitory Life, and that all Flesh must die and hereby revoking all former and other Will and Wills, Testament and Testaments heretofore by me made and declared, Do make, ordain, Publish and declare this my Last Will and Testament in manner and form following, that is to say, First and Principally being penitent and heartily Sorry for my Sins, I commit my soul into the Hands of Almighty God, in whom and by whose Mercy I trust and assuredly believe to be saved and my Body I commit to the Earth to be decently buried by and at the discretion of my Executors herein after named, and for the disposing of such Temporal Estate which it hath pleased God to bless me with...

I give and bequeath unto my beloved wife Catharina Knertzer All that House and lot of Ground locate[d] on the East side of Beaver Street, being the same wherein I now dwell... the Bed now Use [sic] with the Bolsters, Pillows and all other Furniture belonging thereto Also a large Brass Kettle, and the Washing Tubs, two Iron Potts a large one and a little one, a Brass Pann, a Frying Pann, two little Panns, one Skillet, two Pewter Basons, a large one and a small one, two Pewter Dishes, one Dozen of Pewter Plates and one Doz of Pewter Spoons, one Skimmer, two Ladles and a Flesh Fork, three Pails one Pair of Tongs, a Fire Shovel, one Pott Rack, two Pewter Tankerds , and one Pewter half Pint, one Watering Pott, Four Pieces of Linnen Cloth, two of which are of Flax, one of Hemp and the other of Tow, one Chest which she shall chuse, one Table and all the Chairs, Stools and Benches In the House and one Churn, Also the Cow I shall leave at the Time of my decease, as long as she shall think Proper and convenient to keep her, and then to be returned to my Executors to be sold.  And also two little Spinning Wheels, six Table Cloths, six hand Towels, a Dough Trough and six of the least of the Baggs one Barral, a small bagg, her Side Saddle and Bridle, and to keep all her Wearing Apparel, Also to have the Sum of five Pounds, at and immediately after my decease...

One fifth of Balthasar's estate was left to son Balthasar Jr., one fifth to "my oldest daughter Catherina Opp," one fifth to daughter Dorothea Miller, one fifth to stepgrandson Andreas Grass, and one fifth to the children of eldest son Georg Christoph when they came of age.  But Georg Christoph himself was bequeathed exactly "one English Shilling Sterling Money of Great Britain, and no more, which is to be in full of his Share out of my whole Estate both Real and Personal."

Whether this was because of Georg's divorce and decampment to North Carolina is not spelled out.  At any rate it sounds like the act of a Teutonic Sir Anthony Absolute, dealing with Captain Jack in Sheridan's The Rivals [1775]: "I'll disown you, I'll disinherit you, I'll unget you! and damn me! if ever I call you Georg Christoph again!"



~knrtzer goes into detail about Maria Dorothea Meyer's parentage.  Her father Hans Georg Meyer was born December 18, 1671 in Treschklingen, the son of Hans Meyer (born 1647) and Barbara Metz (born 1649); Hans Georg died February 17, 1750 in Hohenstadt.  His wife Maria Dorothea Zwick was born March 15, 1682 in Hohenstadt, daughter of Gabriel Zwick (born 1665); she died in Hohenstadt on January 28, 1734.
~quick/upp names Johann Balthasar/Balthaser Jr.'s children as Barbara Knortzer (born 1753); John Baltzer Knortzer (born 1755); Catherine Knortzer (born 1757); George Adam Knortzer (born 1758); Charlotte Knortzer (born 1760); John Michael Knortzer (born 1761); and Marie Eva Knortzer (born 1762).

●  Johann Peter Upp and Maria Catherine Heintz/Hoens's family should not be confused with that of Jacob Upp (born c.1751 in York County PA) and Maria Elizabeth Sprenckle (born c.1760 in Manchester Township, York County).  They married c.1778 and had four children: John Upp (born 1781 in York County), Jacob Upp Jr. (born c.1786 in York County, died 1793), Catherine Upp (born 1793 in Kentucky, married Gaines H. Roberts in 1817, died 1854 in Indiana), and Elizabeth Ann Upp (born 1798 in Kentucky)—all as per ~sprinkle.
●  Weigelstown, according to ~dovertownship, was named in 1825 for two of its earliest settlers: one Weigel was a blacksmith, the other kept a tavern.
●  ~weigle notes John Peter Weigle's "alternative birthdate" of September 21, 1776, stating there may be confusion between two cousins named Peter.  Opp is here acknowledged as an variant spelling of Obb.
●  ~quick/upp says Susanna Winder was born c.1764, which would've made her 18 years old when husband Johann Peter Ob/Upp Jr. was born.
●  A Margaretta Upp (born 1806, died 1861) married Henry Bachtel (born 1805) in 1826; as per ~bachtel.  This may have been the daughter of Johann Peter Ob/Upp Jr.
●  Although Leah Upp Wikel's great-uncle Johann Jacob (younger brother of her grandfather Johann Peter) lived till 1835, he would seem a less likely candidate for upping stakes and moving to Ohio in "1825 or 1830," when he was in his seventies, than George Upp's older brother Johann Jacob, who'd have been about forty.
●  On the Glasgow's manifest, just after the Heintz household, is a separate Johann Marx Heintz from Kusel: age 19, one year older than Johan Philip's son Johann Marx; as per ~glasgow.
●  ~bentz/pentz supplies copious "Evidence of the Bentz-Pentz Families in York County [PA] Before the Year 1850."  Unfortunately only one of its many entries involves an Ob/Opp/Upp: Agnes, daughter of the late "Nicholas Opp," who married "Philip Pens son of Philip" on Jul. 1, 1766.  ~pens/opp adds that the marriage took place at "Strayer's Lutheran" in Dover Township.  ~bentz/philip says "John Philip Bentz/Pentz" (born 1743, son of Philip and Maria Elizabeth Bentz of York County) married "Agnes Opp/Obb at Salem Luth., Dover Twp."—though here the wedding is dated 1776.
●  It should not astonish anyone that more than one 18th Century Pennsylvanian was known variously as Peter Bentz, Pentz, and Pence.  ~barnum/bentz says Peter Bentz, son of Johannes Bentz, was born 1732 in Cocalico Township, Lancaster County PA.  Circa 1757 he married "Unknown" (born about 1732 in Lancaster) and they had three children: Rachel Pence Sisler (1763-1840/49), Katy Pence Rothrock (born c.1765), and Philip Pentz (c.1774-1834).  Rachel was born in Lancaster County; Katy and Philip in Northumberland County PA.  Circa 1778, Peter married Mary (surname? born 1750 in Lancaster) and they had seven children: John Pence (1779-1862), Peter Pence (c.1782-1827), Elizabeth Pence Snider (born c.1783/84), Susannah Pence Pierson (born c.1785), Catherine Pence Showers (c.1788-c.1810), Mary Pence Stine (born c.1790), and Hannah Pence Gheen (1792-1869).  John and Hannah were born in Lycoming County PA; the other five in Northumberland County.  Besides siring nine Pences (and one Pentz), Peter Bentz was himself called "Peter Pence" in his will (subscribed "Petter Pence" and dated Mary 25, 1812; transcript viewable at ~barnum/pencewill).  Peter died in Wayne Township, Lycoming County PA and was buried in Gebhart Cemetery, St. Elizabeth's Evangelical Lutheran Church, "in the upper part of the Nippenose Valley."  In 1911, after St. Elizabeth's was abandoned, the DAR placed a stone on Peter's grave as a memorial to a "great Indian fighter of Revolutionary fame."  Peter had served in the First Rifle Regiment of Pennsylvania, which was credited with saving the Continental Army at the Battle of Long Island in 1775.  (All as per ~barnum/pencewill.)  ~cynthiaswope records a Peter Pence/Bentz serving with his brother Michael as privates in the York County Associators under Captain Simon Coppenhaffer (aka Copenheaveris).  This was in 1779, followed by 1782 service in the York County Militia.  The same website indicates that Peter's wife Mary came from a family variously known as Humickhausen, Humrickhouse, and Homrickhouser.
●  The Charming Nancy's captain's list includes only males aged over fifteen, including "Baltzer Kritzer" [sic], aged 37.
●  ~charmingnancy relates that the Charming Nancy was built in Philadelphia and registered there in 1736.  It sailed from Rotterdam on June 29, 1737; arrived in Portsmouth July 8th; sailed for Philadelphia July 17th; and landed there September 18, 1737.  "This was the first passage to bring large numbers of Amish to Pennsylvania."  There were three passenger lists for this voyage: the captain's plus two for passengers aged sixteen and older who subscribed to the oaths of allegiance and of abjuration.  The ship made at least one other passage from Rotterdam to Philadelphia, the one arriving in November 1738.
  "No pictorial representation of the Charming Nancy is known to exist and her later history and ultimate fate are not known...  A North-American built vessel in service across the North Atlantic in the 18th century had a maximum estmated lifespan of about 20 years." 
●  ~knrtzer provides a lengthy timeline of Johann Balthasar's business transactions, chiefly involving land, from 1742 to 1764; and a similar one for Georg Christoph.
●  ~migrations/balthasar and ~wilkinson-topley both give Georg Christoph his father's 1701-1769 vitals.
●  ~knrtzer says Georg Christoph's third wife Eve Smith was the daughter of Peter Smith (1701-1767) and Barbara (surname? born 1705); and that Eve had two children by her previous husband, John Adams.
●  Georg Christoph's eldest child, Johannes Nicolaus Knoertzer (aka etc.) had a son Andrew (1790-1862) in Tennessee.  Andrew's surname ran the typical gamut for a Knortzer, varying from Kanatzer to Canatzer and finally settling as Connatser, which his descendants stuck to.  Andrew became a Baptist minister "particularly gifted in exhortation and prayer.  He was of German descent, and could speak the German language...  In physical build he was rawboned, muscular and sinewy, a man of rare physical strength and endurance.  Before his conversion, according to the custom of his day and neighborhood, he drank some."  (So says ~henry, which tells how old companions tried to get the converted Preacher Connatser to drink with them—by force, if necessary.  Andrew, "instead of turning the other cheek to the smiters, with his good fist he landed blows on the cheeks of about seven of his assailants, knocking them down as fast as they approached him.")
●  Killian Knorzer's second wife Anna Barbara was the mother of Johan Jacob Knorzer (born c.1730; died February 20, 1744/45) and Johannes Knorzer (born August 10, 1733; died in Treschklingen November 11, 1765).
●  Balthasar left "Five Pounds lawful money of Pennsylvania" to the "Lutheran Church in York Town, of which Church and Congregation I am a member."  Meanwhile Balthasar Jr., one of the will's executors, received a "Still and all the Vessels belonging to the Same."


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